Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychosocial Research by James E. Marcia Ph.D., Alan S. Waterman Ph.D., David R.

By James E. Marcia Ph.D., Alan S. Waterman Ph.D., David R. Matteson Ph.D., Sally L. Archer Ph.D., Jacob L. Orlofsky Ph.D. (auth.)

Ego Identity: A guide for Psychosocial Research comprises an built-in presentation of identification concept, literature studies overlaying the masses of study reviews on identification, a dialogue of the concepts of interviewing for psychosocial constructs, and version id prestige Interviews and scoring manuals for 3 age teams: early- and center- formative years, the varsity years and maturity. specific consciousness is dedicated to questions of the character and social styles associ ated with differing techniques to the duty of id formation, the methods and styles of identification improvement, and the similarities and ameliorations with which adult females and men shape their experience of identification. concept and learn on Erikson's idea of intimacy is gifted, together with the Intimacy prestige Interview and scoring guide. This guide is usually designed to function a version for these drawn to constructing and utilizing interview ideas for any of the opposite Eriksonian phases of psychosocial improvement. This booklet is perfect for researchers of ego id and intimacy, practitioners and graduate scholars in developmental, character, and social psychology in addition to to psychiatrists.

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The most noticeable change from lower to higher identity statuses occurred around age 21-22. Archer investigated change in identity status in specific interview domains among 11- to 17-year-old boys and girls. She found 19 percent Achievements and Moratoriums among 17-year-olds, corresponding closely to Meilman's 24 percent among 18-year-olds. The occupational domain was the area in which most junior and senior high school students were Identity Achieved. Raphael (1975) reported no high school senior females in the Identity Achievement status.

One behavioral area in which to observe effects of ego development is impulse control-specifically, substance abuse. An investigation of 2. The Status of the Statuses: Research Review 27 nonprescription drug use in college showed that Foreclosures were predominant in, and Moratoriums notably absent from, the category of "adamant non-drug-user" (Dufresne and Cross, 1972), a finding consistent with Matteson's (1978) description of Danish Identity Achievement and Moratorium youths as freer in impulse expression than Foreclosures.

Out of eight studies with women conducted before 1977 in which a grouping of statuses could be ascertained, seven showed the Achievement-Foreclosure, Moratorium-Diffusion pattern. Since 1977, out of sixteen studies with discernible patterns, only four show the earlier grouping; the remaining twelve conform to theoretical expectations underlying the identity statuses. Of the two explanations for this change in pattern, the first is articulated by Orlofsky and Ginsburg (1981): "If Moratorium women are in fact developing beyond the conventional adjustment attained by Foreclosure women, we would expect them to excel on measures which go deeper than the surface level of functioning assessed by self-report and behavioral measures utilized in previous studies" (p.

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