Descartes's Secret Notebook: A True Tale of Mathematics, by Amir D. Aczel

By Amir D. Aczel

EISBN-13: 978-0-307-49480-1

René Descartes (1596–1650) is without doubt one of the towering and critical figures in Western philosophy and arithmetic. His apothegm “Cogito, ergo sum” marked the delivery of the mind-body challenge, whereas his construction of so-called Cartesian coordinates have made our actual and highbrow conquest of actual house possible.

But Descartes had a mysterious and mystical facet, to boot. most likely a member of the occult brotherhood of the Rosicrucians, he stored a mystery computer, now misplaced, so much of which used to be written in code. After Descartes’s dying, Gottfried Leibniz, inventor of calculus and one of many maximum mathematicians in historical past, moved to Paris looking for this notebook—and ultimately came across it within the ownership of Claude Clerselier, a pal of Descartes. Leibniz referred to as on Clerselier and used to be allowed to repeat just a couple of pages—which, although written in code, he amazingly deciphered there immediate. Leibniz’s swiftly scribbled notes are all we now have at the present time of Descartes’s computer, which has disappeared.

Why did Descartes preserve a mystery workstation, and what have been its contents? The solutions to those questions lead Amir Aczel and the reader on a thrilling, swashbuckling trip, and supply a desirable examine one of many nice figures of Western tradition.

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This process imposed no characteristic scale relevant to the formation of galaxies or larger structures, and produced a gaussian field of linear density fluctuations. An alternative, structure generation at late times by topological defects such as cosmic strings or textures, has attracted less attention because its consequences are much harder to calculate. • Structure grows through gravitational instability. Radiation pressure on the gas and dispersive motions in the dark matter can have significant effects at early times, but later evolution is driven entirely by the gravity of the dark matter until the collapse of the dark halos of galaxies.

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For antennas up to 16 m diameter, operating in the mm ranges, the surface accuracy is not the problem. The problem is the pointing accuracy. The antenna structures must be thermally stable, giving good pointing and focus stability, even when part of the structure is shadowed. • For the receivers: low production costs, robust modules, broad bandwidths, no tuning, no helium filling, with simultaneous multi-frequency operation. • For the IF system: broad-band IFs, fiber optic transport of analog or digital IF signals and local oscillator phase reference, analog or digital delay lines; excellent instrumental phase stability.

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