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**Sample text**

Even when the sand mould is completelyfilled,the bottom surfaces con ^Secondary shrinkage cavity duct heat best, due to improved contact with the steel, next in order follow the side walls, with the top surfaces conducting the least heat. Thus the FIG. 73. Formation of secondary shrinkage cavities by premature solidified layers will be thickest at the bottom. 3. Crystals are formed everywhere in the melt and are deposited on nuclei, freezing of the surface of the feeder head or of a section. when the temperature has fallen sufficiently.

Figures 95-97 show the behaviour of the feeder when forming shrinkage cavities. The volume of the cavity increases in direct proportion to its depth, and the feeder modulus decreases linearly, which simpli fies the subsequent calculations. The safety ("compen sating") factor can be derived directly; it varies according to the depth of the cavity. The practical calculation may be based, not on the final modulus at the completion of solidification, but on the mean of the initial and final moduli.

Tons cm 3 mm 1 1020 1080 1140 1 1200 D0 W cm3,1. 5 V 5% [ cm 3,1. 1 9-9 12 14 17 20 22 27 33 38 45 51 58 67 74 83 94 105 115 130 140 157 172 190 205 222 235 260 280 305 350 405 460 525 595 665 750 825 930 1030 1250 1500 1800 2070 I 2430 1 \ 6% 7% Γ v Γ" w v W kg,t I cm3,l. t I cm3,l. $D T A B L E 10. $D0 M a x . feedable volume of casting V (wt W) for a shrinkage of: MF D0 H V W cm mm mm cm3 litres kg m . tons V W V W V W V cm 3 , 1. kg,t cm 3 ,1. kg,t cm 3 ,1. kg, t cm 3 ,1. 9 42 Feeder Heads •+-1 i—·- < * - a \ T A B L E 11.