By Theodore Hsi-en Chen
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Additional info for Chinese Education Since 1949. Academic and Revolutionary Models
16) Jen Min Jih Pao, March 10 and May 12, 1960; a report on industrial university in Paul Harper, "Closing the Education Gap," Current Scene, vol. IV, no. 15, March 15, 1965. (17) Peking R e v i e w , September 2, 1958, p. 10. (18) The opening sentence in the Constitution of the League. (19) Victor C . Funnell, "The Chinese Communist Youth Movement, 1949-66," China Quarterly, no. 42 (April-June, 1970): p. 127. (20) James R . Townsend, The Revolutionization of Chinese Youth (Berkeley: University of California, 1967), p.
30 CHINESE EDUCATION SINCE 1949 The same emphasis was evident in the constitution revised or adopted in 1964. "The basic task of the Communist Youth League is to educate the young people in Marxism and Leninism and the thought of Mao Tse-tung . . and bring up the young people of our country . . " While the Pioneers were "under the direct guidance" of the League, they were no less responsible to the Chinese Communist Party. (23) Another facet of the relationship between the youth organizations and the Chinese Communist Party is that the Pioneers were not restrictive in membership but helped to discover promising youth for membership in the Youth League, which in turn would select the most advanced of its members for admission into the Chinese Communist Party, which restricted membership to those proven to be faithful and reliable workers for the revolutionary cause.
First came political study in connection with the nationwide learning movement (discussed in chapter 2) and in special classes for more intensive study. The latter was held in universities and often dealt with specific ideological weaknesses common to intellectuals. The concepts of class struggle and class differentiation and such attitudes as the disdain of labor and suspicion of the Soviet Union were singled out for examination and relentless criticism. Two features of these political classes, attended by teachers as well as students under the direction of trained cadres and activists, were the practice of criticism and self-criticism in small groups and the writing of "thought conclusions" at the completion of designated units of study.