Chemistry Hydrocarbons (Zambak) by Ayhan NAZLI, Murat DURKAYA, Yener EKŞİ, Nuh ÖZDİN, Muhammet

By Ayhan NAZLI, Murat DURKAYA, Yener EKŞİ, Nuh ÖZDİN, Muhammet AYDIN, Davut PİRAZ, Necdet ÇELİK, Uğur Hulusi PATLI, Varol GÜRLER

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In these reactions, a large amount of energy is released. For this reason, natural gas, which contains a mixture alkanes, is a useful fuel. The general formula for a combustion reaction is; 3n+1 CnH2n+2 + ———— O2 2 ⎯⎯→ C3H8 + 5O2 ⎯⎯→ The composition of natural gas varies in different localities. Its main component, methane, usually makes up 80% to 95% and the rest is composed of varying amounts of ethane, propane and butane. 2. SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS In this type of reaction, an atom in a molecule is replaced with another atom or group.

For this reason, they are described as unsaturated. The carbon atoms joined by a double bond undergo sp2 hybridization. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes because of the double bond in their structure. Alkenes are also known as olefins because they react with chlorine to form an oil-like liquid. The general formula is CnH2n and the first member of this homologous series is C2H4. The systematic IUPAC name of this compound is ethene, though it is commonly known as is ethylene. Alkenes containing two double bonds in their structures are called alkadienes; and ones having more than two double bonds are called alkapolyenes.

C) II and III E) I, II and III C) I and III E) I, II and III CH2 + H2 ⎯⎯→ C2H6 I. CH2 B) I and II 18. The molar mass of an alkyl bromide is 123 g/mol. II. 2CH3Br + 2Na ⎯⎯→ C2H6 + 2NaBr III. C2H5Cl + KOH ⎯⎯→ C2H6 + KCl Which of the compounds below can be produced from the reaction of this alkyl bromide with Na? Which of the given reactions is/are redox reactions? (H : 1, C : 12, Br : 80) A) I only A) Ethane D) II and III B) II only C) I and II E) I, II and III B) Propane D) Heptane C) Sodium propionate E) 2,3 - dimethylbutane Alkanes 49 CRISS – CROSS PUZZLE WORD SEARCH Solve the clues and place your answers in their correct positions in the grid.

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