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However, beyond the normal competition for resources inherent in any given environment, prokaryotic cells were 27 I. ), Cell Signalling in Prokaryotes and Lower Metazoa, 27-71. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 28 CLAY FUQUA AND DAVID WHITE generally not considered to utilize any deliberate means of communication between cells. These longstanding views have been shattered by the recent evidence for a variety of intercellular signalling systems in prokaryotes. In fact, the idea of intercellular signalling among prokaryotes is not new.