By Jackson Beatty
Biofeedback and behaviour: A NATO Symposium, hung on 27-30 July 1976 on the Max Planck Institut fUr Psychiatrie in MUnchen, was once a mul tidisciplinary assembly that explored either theoretical and utilized concerns bobbing up from using biofeedback strategies for the regulate of visceral, principal worried approach and skeletal occasions. The symposium was once multi nationwide in its composition. monetary aid for the symposium was once at first supplied through the clinical Affairs department of the North Atlantic Treaty association as a part of their carrying on with sequence of clinical symposia. cash made avail capable by means of a furnish from the U.S. workplace of Naval examine allow ted prevalent overseas participation within the symposium. The facil ities for the assembly have been graciously supplied by means of the Max Planck Institut ilir Psychiatrie. We thank every one of those companies for his or her aid in making this symposium attainable. a distinct thank you is because of Dr. B.A. Bayraktar of the clinical Affairs department of NA TO and Dr. Donald wooden ward of the U. S. place of work of Naval study, whose suggestions contributed considerably to the association of this assembly. The making plans of this symposium used to be performed in session with individuals of the organizing committee: Rolf Engel, Pola Engel-Sittenfeld, Laverne C. Johnson, George H. Lawrence, Gary E. Schwartz, and Da vid Shapiro. the ultimate kind of this symposium displays their contribu tions, for which we're thankful.
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3. ARE THE CONCEPTS OF FEEDBACK AND FEEDFORWARD APPLICABLE TO THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS? We have seen in Eayek's model of the nervous system that the higher levels of the nervous system are concerned with more abstract models which are, relatively speaking, timeless whereas the lower levels of the nervous system are concerned with more specific or concrete matters which require a higher rate of compensation for error. The upper escheIons are buffered from the necessity for dealing with specifics by the labor of the lower eschelons.
More decisive and widely influential) computational facilities and to maximize the use of more peripheral (more unconditional or automatic, hence less generally useful) control mechanisms. When the upper centers are being overloaded with work (or if they anticipate being overworked), they can intervene in the affairs of the lower levels in ways calculated to reduce the workload of the upper levels of the system. Generally, feedforward operations, i. , superordinate intervention in subordinate affairs) serve to rapidly and directly advance the system into the most probable range of operation (or "ball park") before the superordinate system relinquishes control to the subordinate feedback control system which then takes over and reduces the remaining error.
TEE LIVING BRAIN: A PROTOPLASMIC COMPUTER From the viewpoint of a cyberneticist, the human nervous system is regarded as an extremely large and complex protoplasmic computer that functions as an adaptive control system. In other words, it is just another control system, albeit an extraordinarily interesting one. The concept of the brain-as-computer was first advanced in a systematic fashion by Kenneth Craik (1943). Considering the fledgling state of electronic computers at that time, his insight was remarkable.