By Masao Fukuda (auth.), Hideaki Nojiri, Masataka Tsuda, Masao Fukuda, Yoichi Kamagata (eds.)
Biodegradative Bacteria highlights the radical nature of bacterial cellphone capabilities within the box of biodegradation by way of placing them into 3 components: (1) Genetic and genomic platforms, (2) Degradative enzyme platforms, and (3) Bacterial habit in ordinary environmental structures. the 1st a part of the booklet comprises mobilephone services as degradative equipment, genome platforms for potent degradation, and the evolution of degradative platforms by way of cellular genetic components. the second one half offers with the constitution, functionality, evolution, variety, and alertness of degradative and comparable enzymes. The 3rd half provides mobile or genomic behaviors of biodegradative micro organism in ordinary ecosystems.
Bacterial metabolic potential, which performs a major position within the international fabric cycle, contributes considerably to the buffering ability for the massive and unintentional free up of assorted chemical substances. lately, in spite of the fact that, the prosperity and globalization of fabric civilization has led not just to serious neighborhood infection through dangerous chemical compounds, but additionally to non-stop increment of contaminant concentrations around the world. to resolve such pressing worldwide concerns, bacterial capabilities which are all for biodegradation of detrimental chemical substances were analyzed. The time period “biodegradative micro organism” refers to these micro organism that experience the power to degrade such xenobiotic (man-made) and/or harmful chemical substances. Analyses of biodegradative micro organism comprise diversified components of research, akin to genetics, enzymology, genomics, phone body structure, ecology, and evolutionary biology. In different phrases, the ambitions investigated in study on biodegradative micro organism contain unmarried molecules, unmarried cellphone structures, bacterial consortia (interaction with surrounding microorganisms), and interplay with surrounding biotic and abiotic fabrics. Such complexity makes the study on biodegradative micro organism tricky yet particularly interesting.
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Extra info for Biodegradative Bacteria: How Bacteria Degrade, Survive, Adapt, and Evolve
Numbers under the genes show amino acid identity (%) with RepA, ParA, and ParB of representative replicons of each type shown in bold at the top of each panel Y. Nagata et al. 7 (B2) Fig. 2 (continued) so-called repABC family plasmids, which are widely distributed among α-proteobacteria (Cevallos et al. 2008), suggesting that Chr 2 and pCHQ1 are originated from repABC family plasmids. The replication origin of pUT1 was proposed to be located at the region upstream of the putative repA gene, because direct repeats and a DnaA box were found in this region (Fig.
Nojiri et al. 1007/978-4-431-54520-0_3, © Springer Japan 2014 43 44 W. Kitagawa and Y. 1 Introduction 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been widely used as an agricultural chemical since its introduction in the 1940s. It has phytohormone auxin activity, and it exerts selective herbicidal action on broad leaf weeds by disrupting their endogenous hormone system, particularly in the meristem (Inoue et al. 1988). The advantages of 2,4-D and its related compounds have made it a globally used treatment for rice and other gramineous crops.
The advantages of 2,4-D and its related compounds have made it a globally used treatment for rice and other gramineous crops. Rapid environmental degradation of 2,4-D by indigenous microorganisms was documented in the early days of its usage. As early as the 1950s, degradation of 2,4-D by certain bacteria, via 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP) as an intermediate, was proposed (Steenson and Walker 1957). Since then, numerous bacteria that degrade and mineralize 2,4-D have been isolated, mainly from 2,4-D-treated agricultural, urban, and industrial soils and sediments (Bhat et al.