By J. Bricmont
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Extra info for Bayes, Boltzmann and Bohm - Probabilities in Physics
The trend of the curves for the neutron-rich nuclei is easy to understand. But for all elements the energy reaches its peak at 128 neutrons, and then drops sharply when the 126th and the 125th neutron is removed from the nucleus. 5 to 2 MeV. THE SHELL MODEL 25 3. The atomic analogue The strong binding of a magic number of nucleons and weak binding for one more, immediately brings to mind a similar, only relatively much stronger effect which occurs in the electronic structure of atoms. The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is measured by the ionization potential.
To account for this phenomenon, he introduced the concept of « exchange forces » which he formulated in terms of « isospin » formalism, first invented for this purpose. Thus he created a conceptual apparatus which is still used in discussing the most direct studies of nucleon-nucleon interaction, the scattering experiments. The quantitative results concerning exchange mixtures which would guarantee saturation are by now outdated. It is unfortunate that at that time one did not systematically pursue one other possible explanation of saturation: a property of the forces which is today usually called « hard core » or « most hardcore ».
For instance, if there are three identical nucleons in the 7/2 shell there are 6 levels of different magnitude of total angular momentum, ranging from 3/2 to 15/2. It is very fortunate that of the vast number of complicated levels only the simplest ones occur as the ground state of nuclei. There are further regularities. For instance, in bismuth there exist 5 isotopes of odd mass number in which the neutron number is even. All have a nuclear spin measured to be g/z, namely, that of the 83rd proton.