By A. Heyting, N. G. De Bruijn, J. De Groot, A. C. Zaanen

Bibliotheca Mathematica: a sequence of Monographs on natural and utilized arithmetic, quantity V: Axiomatic Projective Geometry, moment variation makes a speciality of the rules, operations, and theorems in axiomatic projective geometry, together with set conception, prevalence propositions, collineations, axioms, and coordinates. The ebook first elaborates at the axiomatic procedure, notions from set conception and algebra, analytic projective geometry, and occurrence propositions and coordinates within the aircraft. Discussions concentrate on ternary fields connected to a given projective aircraft, homogeneous coordinates, ternary box and axiom approach, projectivities among strains, Desargues' proposition, and collineations. The e-book takes a glance at occurrence propositions and coordinates in house. issues comprise coordinates of some extent, equation of a aircraft, geometry over a given department ring, trivial axioms and propositions, 16 issues proposition, and homogeneous coordinates. The textual content examines the elemental proposition of projective geometry and order, together with cyclic order of the projective line, order and coordinates, geometry over an ordered ternary box, cyclically ordered units, and primary proposition. The manuscript is a useful resource of information for mathematicians and researchers drawn to axiomatic projective geometry.

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F r o m Th. 3 and Th. 15. 17. I n %(D9), D\9 D\l9 D\n and £>JV, and their duals, are theorems. P R O O F , a ) . For D\. Instead, we shall prove the dual dD\, which is obtained from dD9 by changing the condition A2eb2 into Bxe ax. Apply D9* to A1B1C2\A2B2C1\C3\b2a2cx|6,axc2|α3δ3 Ζ. 40 INCIDENCE PROPOSITIONS IN THE PLANE Chap. 2 We obtain P19 P2, P3, rn9 such t h a t P1€b29 bl9 m; P2ea29 al9 m; P3€Cl9 c29 m. 3; P 2 = A3; m = c3; P3e cl9 By Th. 16 we can infer D\ from dD\. c2, c 3. b). For Dl1. The proof is identical with t h a t for D{0 (Th.

1, V i a and Th. 2 respectively. Now let S3 be a proof of a theorem Θ from V I , V2, V3. Let us interchange " p o i n t " and "line" in 33 as well as in Θ, obtaining S3' and Θ'. Obviously S3' is a proof of Θ' from V2, Th. 1, V i a and Th. 2. B u t Th. 1 and Th. 2 can in their turn be derived from V I , V2, V3, so t h a t Θ' can be derived from VI, V2, V3. 3. If in a theorem of $ we interchange the words "point" and "line", we obtain again a theorem of 5β. Two theorems which change into each other if we interchange "point" and "line", are called dual.

Case Vb. Like Va, but Bx = B 2 . Then 6X = 6 2 , so C± = C 2 . Take for Z a line through Ci and C 3 . Now the proof is complete. 32 INCIDENCE PROPOSITIONS IN THE PLANE Chap. 2 E x e r c i s e . Show by a counterexample t h a t the assertion in D n need not be true if Ax = A2 = Az. Dual of D e s a r g u e s ' Proposition {dDn). Let two t r i l a t e r a l αχα2α3 and b1b2b3 be given, such t h a t corresponding sides as well as corresponding vertices are different. If corresponding sides intersect in points which are incident with a line I, then the lines connecting corresponding vertices are incident with a point 0 .