By H. E. Boyer, Howard E. Boyer
This atlas is split into 22 sections plus an appendix. Sections 1, 2, and three include technical discussions of assorted elements of the critical subject. For these now not conversant in the idea that of creep, its size, and the translation of try out effects, this introductory fabric may be very useful. The appendix, put on the finish of the ebook, is a word list of phrases suitable to creep. the rest sections are: Iron-Base Superalloys; Nickel-Base Superalloys; Cobalt-Base Superalloys; Superalloy Comparisons; Refractory Metals; Refractory Metals Comparisons; ACI Casting Alloys; Austenitic Stainless Steels; Ferri tic Stainless Steels; Martensitic Stainless Steels; Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels; Higher-Nickel Austenitic Alloys; Stainless Steels Comparisons; Nickel-Base Alloys; solid Irons; Carbon and Alloy Steels; Copper and Copper Alloys; Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys; Titanium and Titanium Alloys.
the best way to Use This publication
desk of Contents
1. normal advent to Creep
2. try tools and gear
three. Manipulation and Interpretation of knowledge
four. Iron-Base Superalloys
five. Nickel-Base Superalloys
6. Cobalt-Base Superalloys
7. Superalloy Comparisons
eight. Refractory Metals
nine. Refractory Metals Comparisons
10. ACl Casting Alloys
eleven. Austenitic Stainless Steels
12. Ferritic Stainless Steels
thirteen. Martensitic Stainless Steels
14. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
15. Higher-Nickel Austenitic Alloys
sixteen. Stainless Steels Comparisons
17. Nickel-Base Alloys
18. forged Irons
19. Carbon and Alloy Steels
20. Copper and Copper Alloys
21. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
22. Titanium and Titanium Alloys
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Additional info for Atlas of Creep and Stress-Rupture Curves
2, it can be established that the Larson-Miller equation for this set of data is: P = flol = IT + 4601 Ilog tR + 251 where T is temperature in “F and fn is time to rupture, in hours. 7 In the equations given above for each parameter, u is applied stress, t is time, T is temperature in “C or “F, TA is temperature in K or “R, Q is the activation energy, R is the gas constant, and B and C are numerical constants characteristic of the material and its metallurgical condition. Fig. 2 different Characteristic appearance of creep-rupture time-temperature parameters stress, time and temperature data, the proper value can be substituted in Eq I and plotted as shown in Fig.
The presence of a notch may increase life, decrease life, or have no effect. When the presence of a notch increases life over the entire range of rupture time, as shown in Fig. 2(a), the alloy is said to be notch strengthened; that is, the notched specimen can withstand higher nominal stresses than the unnotched specimen. Conversely, when the notch-rupture strength is consistently below the unnotched-rupture strength, as in Fig. 2(c), the alloy is said to be notch sensitive, or notch weakened. Many investigators have defined a notch-sensitive condition as one for which the notch strength ratio is below unity.
3(d), it is evident that the line drawn could have been determined by fewer data points - in fact, as few as three: the points on either extreme and one midway on the curve. In practice, for comparing materials for acceptance or in an alloy development program, three or four well-chosen points at various stresses and temperatures will produce such a curve in only several hundred hours of testing. This is an excellent method for comparing heats within a specification over a period of time or alternatively as a first cut in selecting the few best performing materials out of many prepared in a new-material development program.