Arthashastra: The Science of Wealth by Thomas R. Trautmann

By Thomas R. Trautmann

A rare exact handbook on statecraft and the technology of residing by way of one in every of classical India's maximum minds; Kautilya; sometimes called Chanakya and Vishnugupta; wrote the Arthashastra no longer later than one hundred fifty advert even though the date has no longer been conclusively demonstrated. Legend has it that he used to be both a Brahmin from Kerala or from north India; even if; it's convinced that Kautilya used to be the fellow who destroyed the Nanda dynasty and put in Chandragupta Maurya because the King of Magadha. A grasp strategist who used to be well-versed within the Vedas and adept at growing intrigues and devising political stratagems; Kautilya's genius is mirrored in his Arthashastra that is the main entire treatise of statecraft of classical instances. The textual content comprises fifteen books which conceal a number of issues viz.; the King; a whole code of legislations; international coverage; mystery and occult practices and so forth. The Arthashastra is written ordinarily in prose but in addition contains 380 shlokas. Artha; actually wealth; is considered one of 4 perfect goals prescribed by means of Hindu culture. in spite of the fact that; it has a much broader importance and the fabric overall healthiness of people is simply part of it. in line with this; Kautilya's Arthashastra keeps that the country or executive of a rustic has an essential function to play in retaining the fabric prestige of either the country and its humans. accordingly; an important a part of the Arthashastra has to do with the technology of economics. whilst it bargains with the technological know-how of politics; the Arthashastra describes intimately the paintings of presidency in its widest sense-the upkeep of legislation and order as additionally of a good administrative equipment.

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Around the same time, the Vietnamese were mired in an anti-imperialist war against the French. To help fund the war of resistance the Democratic Republic of Vietnam established the State Bank in 1951. Much like the PBC, the State Bank issued money and managed payment services while providing credits and funds to administer the state budget. With the pushing-out of the French in 1954 the government transformed the State Bank into a funding institution for domestic trade, industry, handicrafts, cooperatives, agriculture, and other SOEs and organisations.

In doing so, China has put increasing pressure on both low-tech and high-tech production in the European Union. 4 Overproduction is an accumulation of commodities and capital beyond the consumption capability of society. indd 21 20/08/2014 16:24:22 22 polarising development Cambridge Econometrics (2011) has shown that if we include Brazil, India and China within the range of countries considered as competitors, the scale of deterioration of EU competitiveness in manufacturing appears to be even bigger.

A. and Ruiters, G. (eds) (2012) Alternatives to Privatization: Public Options for Essential Services in the Global South. Cape Town: HSRC Press. indd 38 20/08/2014 16:24:23 chapter four The Political Economy of Development: Statism or Marxism? Benjamin Selwyn The central objective of development theory and practice is to find ways to alleviate the conditions of the world’s poor. Neoliberalism has failed in this regard. For many students of development, statist political economy (SPE) is the natural and obvious alternative to neoliberalism.

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