Armies of the Crusades by Terence Wise, Gerry Embleton

By Terence Wise, Gerry Embleton

Within the early crusades males of all ranks from in all places Europe took the go and went to struggle Islam as volunteers. a few went out of non secular fervour, others to flee the plagues and famine that have been rife on the time, nonetheless others looking for land or a fortune in loot. battling along all of those have been the armies raised in Outremer, the Holy Land itself. jointly they waged a bloody non secular struggle, the contributors of which incorporated such forces because the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Knights, and the Byzantine military.

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Vietnamese troops were reported to make exceptional artillerymen, and ARVN artillery support overall was considered good when it could be effectively massed and coordinated. However, there were problems with maintenance, outdated fire control procedures, and the inconsistent quality of forward observers, and thus a heavy reliance on US artillery and air support. The American withdrawal in 1972 left a serious fire-support shortfall even though additional units were activated. Increasing use of 122mm and 130mm artillery by the NVA became a serious threat, as they outranged many ARVN pieces.

A yellowpainted French OF 37 offensive grenade is clipped to his belt; the higher-fragmentation defensive DF 37 had the same “scent-bottle” case but with the lower half painted dark red. A2: L ight m achine gu n n e r This soldier wears the same uniform – whose exact shades of green drab varied widely – with the addition of a US M1 steel helmet. By now some French airborne troops’ pattern TAP50 web equipment was available, here the belt and the US-style canteen and carrier – the canteen had a wider neck than the original.

101 Ranger Division was formed from 31–33 Ranger Groups and small collected units, and operated around Saigon; 106 Ranger Division is known only to have included 7 Ranger Group, to the southeast of Saigon. 8 BDQ battalions were not parachute-qualified. Only the 81 Airborne Ranger Bn was parachute-trained and under Vietnamese Special Forces control. It was redesignated 81 Airborne Ranger Group in December 1970, but was only an enlarged battalion with eight companies. They wore a green beret rather than BDQ maroon.

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