An introduction to gymnosperms, cycas, and cycadales by Pant, D.D. and Osborne, R. and Birbal Sahni Institute of

By Pant, D.D. and Osborne, R. and Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany

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Extra resources for An introduction to gymnosperms, cycas, and cycadales

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C. b. -b . "'. ' @~ :0· c, .. •. " B Fig. 5. Hydrasperma tenuis. A, seed in median longisection. B-E, successive transections of seed at levels indicated by b-e (all after Long 1961). Cupules Most of the ancient radiospermic seeds from the Upper Devonian-Carboniferous rocks are borne in terminal cupules fonned by forking sterile telomes and it appears that their cupules too have arisen by a process similar to that of the fonnation of integuments by fusion of circlets of sterile telomes formed around one or more ovules (Fig.

Class 1. Pteridospermopsida Order 1. Lyginopteridales Order 2. Medullosales Order 3. Glossopteridales Order 4. Peltaspermales Order 5. Corystospermales Order 6. Caytoniales Class 2. Cycadopsida Order 7. Cycadales 41 3. CLASSIFICATION Class 3. Pentoxylopsida Order 8. Pentoxylales Class 4. Bennettitopsida (Cycadeoideopsida) Order 9. Bennettitales (Cycadeoideales) Division 2 - Chlamydospermophyta Peculiar angiosperm-like forms. Class 1. Gnetopsida Order 1. Gnetales Order 2. , Harrisiothecium marsiliodes (Hams, 1935), Buriadia heterophylla (Pant & Nautiyal, 1967), which may require separate orders for themselves, are not assigned any position in the above scheme.

CLASSIFICATION reincorporated as a division of the plant kingdom coordinate with the Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Angiospermae. , Ephedra, Gnetum and Welwitschia are included in a single order, Gnetales, as in older classifications. (iii) The Caytoniales have been separated from the Pteridospermae and the Nilssoniales from the Cycadales and introduced as distinct orders in the class Cycadopsida. (iv) A new order Pentoxylales, including the Pentoxyleae (Srivastava, 1945; Sahni, 1948) is incorporated in the Cycadopsida.

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