Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology: The Role of by Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)

By Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)

The covalent attachment to deoxyribonucleic acid in vivo of a big variety of varieties of chemicals (both general mobile components equivalent to proteins and amino acids, and in addition exogenous compounds corresponding to medications, cancer agents, and so on. ) were proven to exert profound results upon cells. 4 learn activi­ ties, previously thought of to be absolutely self sustaining, relate to this challenge of nucleic acid adducts--(1) basic covalent attachment of DNA to membranes, protein linkers in chromosomes, and so on. ; (2) the jobs of radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation in mobile killing and mutagenesis. (A similar box is using identified cross-linking reactions to achieve info on structural institutions in macromolecular complexes. ); (3) the relevance of DNA adducts to chemical and radiation carcinogenesis; (4) the rele­ vance of DNA adducts to the cross-linking concept of mobile getting older. (1) there are lots of examples of standard linkages among DNA and protein, e. g. , DNA-membrane attachment websites, protein linkers in chromosomes, amino acids covalently associated with DNA as a functionality of progress stipulations, and gene law by means of non-covalently certain proteins. A precis of knowledge on typical adducts to DNA therefore serves to introduce the topic of the radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation. (2) long ago, radiation biology has been involved almost always with attempting to comprehend the radiation chemistry of purified DNA, and the organic results and service of those radiation-induced changes while produced in mobile DNA.

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However, the relative distribution of amino acids was essentially the same in extractable DNA and interphase bound DNA. This seems to suggest that some of the amino acids, at least, are involved in linkages which are made and broken during the attachment and release of DNA from membrane. , 1964). A somewhat related interpretation follows from the observations that there is a considerable difference in the amount of amino acids bound to DNA of bacteria that have been grown in media with varying degrees of enrichment.

Biophys. 97:80-93. , 1960, The relationship between molecular weight and viscosity as a criterion of damage in DNA, Makromol. Chern. 38:204-211. , 1970, The production of strand breaks in mammalian DNA by X-rays: at different stages in the cell cycle, Radiat. Res. 44:771-787. , 1972, Restoration of the DNA structure in X-irradiated eucaryotic cells in vitro and in vivo~ in Proc. Fifth Int. Symp. on Mol. Hopkins Med. , Suppl. 1:147-158. , 1966, Reconstruction in vivo of irradiated Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid; the rejoining of broken pieces, Nature (London) 212:534-535.

7. Based upon data published by Balis, Salser and Elder (1964). Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Alanine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tyrosine Phenylalanine Lysine Histidine Arginine Basic amino-acids Neutral and acidic amino-acids (~g amino-acid residue/100 mg DNA) Minimal media Enriched media No. 1* No. 2t No. 5t No. 3t No. 6* No. 4* Table 2. Amino Acid Residues in Several E. eoZi DNA 1 s Grown in Different Media (J'1 w )::o :z 0 -I 0 0 :z c::: 0 OJ (/) 0 ...... n )::o 0 :z )::o ::s:: ......

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