Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111 by Peter W. Hawkes

By Peter W. Hawkes

Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges long-running serials--Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy . The sequence gains prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, photograph technological know-how and electronic snapshot processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in most of these domain names.

Show description

Read Online or Download Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111 PDF

Best nonfiction_2 books

God Inside Out: Siva’s Game of Dice

This e-book bargains a brand new exploration of the mythology of the Hindu god Siva, who spends his time taking part in cube along with his spouse, to whom he habitually loses. the results of the sport is our international, which turns the god inside-out and alterations his inner composition. Hindus keep that Siva is forever absorbed during this video game, that's recreated in innumerable tales, poems, work, and sculptural carvings.

The Making of Eurosceptic Britain

Gifford bargains an intensive interpretation of a tremendous political factor. This e-book is going past present narrative and institutional money owed of england and Europe by means of featuring a theoretically coherent and exact point of view in this bothered courting. Populist Euroscepticism has develop into primary to constituting Britain and Britishness in a post-imperial context, regardless of club of the ecu Union.

Graffiti and Dipinti (Athenian Agora vol. 21)

Over 3,000 casual inscriptions scratched or painted on pottery, lamps, or different clay fragments were present in the excavations of the Athenian Agora. during this quantity, 859 of those graffiti and dipinti (representing people with adequate content material to be significant) are provided in catalogue and drawings.

Rewriting Moses: The Narrative Eclipse of the Text (JSOT Supplement Series)

Exalted for hundreds of years as a hero and writer of the Bible, Moses is inseparable from biblical culture itself. An inherently ambiguous determine, Moses can also be a perennial concentration of controversy, from historical disputes of priestly competition to trendy problems with type, gender and race. Brian Britt analyses components of polemic and beliefs within the Moses of the Bible, of movie, novel, visible paintings and scholarship.

Additional resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111

Example text

3; j D 0, 1, . . , 7 0 otherwise 3 1 x m, n 2mk 2nl 32 mD0 nD0 2ð4 mod F3 if k D 8i; X k, l D l D 4j; 8 i D 0, 1; j D 0, 1, . . , 3 0 otherwise Summing along rows gives Tc M 1 X k, l D 2Tc 1 1 x m, n 2 C mk nl 2 mD0 x m, n 2nl nDTc nD0 N 1 CÐÐÐ C x m, n 2nl mod Ft 94 nDN Tc because x m C Tr , n C Tc D x m, n . Equation (94) can be written as M 1 X k, l D 2mk 1 C 2Tc l C 22Tc l mD0 Tc 1 CÐÐÐ C2 N Tc l x m, n 2nl nD0 mod Ft 95 NUMBER THEORETIC TRANSFORMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 43 Summing along columns with respect to the period Tr , Equation (95) can be written as X k, l D 1 C 2Tr k C 22Tr k C Ð Ð Ð C 2 M Tr k ð 1 C 2Tc l C 22Tc l Tr 1 Tc 1 C ÐÐÐ C 2 N Tc l x m, n 2mk 2nl mod Ft 96 mD0 nD0 Factoring Equation (96) gives Tr 1 Tc 1 X k, l D A k Ð A l x m, n 2mk 2nl mod Ft 97 mD0 nD0 where log2 M/Tr Ak D 1 C 2 M/E k ; E D 2q mod Ft 98 1 C 2 N/G l ; G D 2p mod Ft 99 qD1 log2 N/Tc Al D pD1 From Equation (98) and Equation (99): Ak D Al D M/Tr if k D Mi/Tr , 0 otherwise N/Tc if l D Nj/Tc , 0 otherwise i D 0, 1, 2, .

2. If ps D 32, then 2ps D 1 mod F4 D 2ps mod 32 . 3. If ps > 32, then ps D ps mod 32 C 32t t D integer and 2ps D 2ps mod 32 Ð 232t D 2ps mod 32 . Equation (19) is then written in the form 31 Gm p,q D 2jpsj ˛hqsi sD0 31 xm s, r 2jrqj mod F 20 rD0 p, q D 0, 1, . . , 31 where j Ð j stands for mod 32. 1. The Twiddle Factor ˛qs The twiddle factor arises from the transformation of the one-dimensional process into a two-dimensional process and acts on the result of the first one-dimensional FNT only. It also creates two problems, one of storage and one of time.

The number of nonzero elements in the 2-D FNT is small, especially for the data with Tr ð Tc − M ð N, which is typically the case with a photomask. 48 S. BOUSSAKTA AND A. G. J. HOLT (a) (b) FIGURE 13. (a) Defective photomask with just one pixel error. (b) 2-D FNT of part (a) showing a completely different FNT pattern of the defective mask. Therefore, the detection process may require comparison of only a few 2-D FNT elements. Any differences between the 2-D FNT values being compared automatically imply a defective mask.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.61 of 5 – based on 13 votes