By Ute Resch-Genger, Markus Grabolle, Roland Nitschke, Thomas Nann (auth.), Alexander P. Demchenko (eds.)
From the reviews:
“This ebook is a entire assessment of the different sorts of nanoscale probes which have been and are presently being constructed for sensing of analytes. The well timed reference part permits the reader to find key references to the first literature for growth of the cloth coated. … a invaluable source that covers the factitious, photo-physical, and theoretical features of this varied box of research.” (Jeffrey T. Petty, magazine of the yankee Chemical Society, Vol. 133, 2011)
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Extra info for Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology II: Molecular Constructions, Polymers and Nanoparticles
For instance, at present, there are no established methods available to determine the surface coverage and number of ligands attached to the surface of a QD. , the measurement of the QD-to-biomolecule ratio . 4 Applications of Nanoparticles: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends Organic molecules are well established as fluorescent labels and reporters for in vitro assays and in vivo imaging, despite their nonoptimum spectroscopic features and photochemical instability. Due to their availability from many commercial sources, established functionalization protocols, and extensively studied properties organic dyes present a simple, safe, and comparatively inexpensive option.
For instance, methods involving the use of a fluorogenic enzyme substrate cannot be transferred to QD technology. However, enzymatic amplification has been combined with QDs in the past . Approaches such as controlled aggregation or the construction of multichromophoric systems like chromophore-doped particle labels are similarly suited for both organic dyes and QDs. MEF, that exploits the coupling of the chromophore’s transition dipole moment to metal plasmons, can provide emission enhancement factors of typically ca.
In the case of QDs, the chromophore microenvironment mainly affects the fluorescence quantum yield and fluorescence decay behavior. These effects are governed by a whole range of factors: the nature of the nanocrystals, their ligands, shells, and the accessibility of the core surface . Typically, properly shelled/ ligated nanocrystals are minimally sensitive to microenvironment polarity provided that no ligand desorption occurs . Also, the emission and absorption properties of most nanoparticles are barely responsive to viscosity, contrary to that of many organic dyes.