By Alexander M. Rubinov

Special instruments are required for interpreting and fixing optimization difficulties. the most instruments within the examine of neighborhood optimization are classical calculus and its sleek generalizions which shape nonsmooth research. The gradient and numerous forms of generalized derivatives let us ac complish an area approximation of a given functionality in a neighbourhood of a given aspect. this type of approximation is particularly necessary within the examine of neighborhood extrema. notwithstanding, neighborhood approximation on my own can't aid to resolve many difficulties of world optimization, so there's a transparent have to advance designated international instruments for fixing those difficulties. the best and so much recognized quarter of worldwide and concurrently neighborhood optimization is convex programming. the elemental device within the research of convex optimization difficulties is the subgradient, which actu best friend performs either an area and international function. First, a subgradient of a convex functionality f at some degree x incorporates out an area approximation of f in a neigh bourhood of x. moment, the subgradient allows the development of an affine functionality, which doesn't exceed f over the whole area and coincides with f at x. This affine functionality h is termed a help func tion. due to the fact f(y) ~ h(y) for best friend, the second one position is international. unlike a neighborhood approximation, the functionality h can be known as a world affine support.

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Now let l' E U. Since U is normal, the inequality l' t {1- c)l is not true. 5) holds. Then we can find an index i' E I+(l') such that i' ¢ I+(l). Since Xi'= 0, we have (l',x) = 0 < (l,x). 6) is valid. Then Xio > 0. Hence l'(x) = . min l~xi ~ l~0 Xi 0 < {1- c)li0 Xi 0 = 1. IEI+(l') Thus we have constructed a vector x with the property l(x) > 1 ~ sup l'(x). 14 We say that a subset U of the set Lis pointwise closed if (lkEU(k=1,2, ... ) ==>lEU. )-convex set is pointwise closed. 18 shows that a normal closed-along-rays subset of L is pointwise closed.

This mapping is called the Minkowski duality. ~+ if p = +oo. 14) as supp(p,L) = {l E L: (l,x):::;; p(x) for all x EX}. 2 allows us to easily describe support sets. ++· Then supp(p, L) = { l E R++ : p ( ~) ~ 1} . ++} {l: max (l,x):51}={l:p0 {l):51} - x:p(x)$1 {l : ptf) :5 1} = { l : p( ~) ~ 1} . This completes the proof. We now describe some properties of support sets. Let PI, P2 be IPH functions. It follows immediately from the definition of the support set that PI :5 P2 <===> supp(pb L) C supp(p2, L).

Then 12 ~ 11 . 3. L-convex function We shall examine abstract convex. 2). Note that 0 E L, so the support set is not empty for each abstract convex function. 3). 16 Let L be as above. Then a function p: is L-convex if and only if p is 1PH. f. -+ ill. PH functions and normal sets 45 Proof: Since a function l : x t--+ (l, x) is IPH for all l E L, it follows that an £-convex function is also IPH. Conversely, suppose p is an IPH function. e. zx = (lf, ... , l~), where 1 ~ = { p(x)/xi 0 ~ For the function zx : x t--+ if i E I+(x); if i ¢ I+(x).